Emerging Nanomaterials to Enhance Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy for Biomedical Applications


Over the last few decades, electrical impedance-based sensors have been investigated for clinical translation to detect changes in tissue conductivities, including cardiac output and pulmonary function. Recently, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) provides metabolic measurements that occur at the electrode-tissue interface, and the 3-D EIS can be reconstructed to generate electrical impedance tomography (EIT) for detecting the impedimetric properties of the vascular wall or fatty liver disease. In both EIS and EIT applications, the electrochemical properties of the interface electrodes are essential to address the signal-to-noise ratio or sensitivity of measurements in the biological environment. To enhance the conductive properties, we will survey a series of carbon-based nanomaterials as the emerging candidates for coating the electrodes of bioimpedance sensors. In this review, we will provide a theoretical background on impedance-based measurements and highlight the current state of EIS and EIT, including their applications for cancer screening and detection of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. Next, we will focus on the strengths of different nanomaterials when used as an electrode coating to optimize charge transfer across the electric double layers and to enhance measurement sensitivity. We will also identify some unmet clinical needs, such as the ability to adapt to different hemodynamic conditions and blood vessel geometries, that can be realized by the novel biomaterials for the future EIS-based sensors.

Frontiers in Materials, 10
Justin Chen
Justin Chen
Ph.D. Student